How To Fix Duck Feet Posture

This blog post covers effective exercises and strategies to help fix your Duck Feet Posture.

What is Duck feet posture?

duck feet posture

Duck Feet Posture is a postural deviation where the feet are pointing outwards.

(The opposite of this would be Pigeon Toe where the feet point inwards.)

In This Blog Post:

How can you tell if you have Duck feet posture?

out turned feet


  • Stand up.
  • March on the spot for 5 seconds.
  • Stop.
  • Look down at your feet.
  • Which direction are your feet pointing towards?

Results: If your feet are pointing outwards, then you have Duck Feet Posture!

What causes Duck Feet Posture?


It is VITAL to understand which exact area of the body is causing your feet to point outwards.

(This will determine the specific exercises (in the Exercise section) that will need to be performed to address the Duck Feet Posture.)


a) Pelvis: Posterior Pelvic Tilt

posterior pelvic tilt

A Posterior Pelvic Tilt is where the pelvis is rotated in a backwards direction.

(Think about this pelvis position as having your tail bone tucked underneath you.)

A posterior tilt of the pelvis will ORIENTATE the hip joint outwards which may lead to the hipsknees and feet facing outwards.

Test for Posterior Pelvic Tilt:


  • Whilst standing, locate the following land marks on your pelvis:
    • Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)
      • “pointy bone at the front of your pelvis”
    • Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS)
      • “pointy bone at the back of your pelvis”

Results: If you have a Posterior Pelvic Tilt, The ASIS will be higher in comparison to the PSIS.

Generally speaking – This pelvis position is usually due to an imbalance in the following muscles:

Tight and/or Overactive Muscles:

  • Hamstrings
  • Abdominals
  • Gluteal group

Weak and/or Inhibited Muscles:

  • Lumbar Erectors
  • Hip Flexors

If you have a Posterior Pelvic Tilt that is causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

b) Hip: External rotation

duck feet posture hip external rotation

Hip External Rotation is where the Femur (Upper leg bone) rotates outwards in the hip joint.

This can cause the hips, knees and feet to point outwards.

(Keep in mind: Hip external rotation can occur in conjunction with any position the pelvis – posterior tilt, anterior tilt or neutral position.)

Test for Hip External Rotation:


  • Whilst standing, look down at your knees.
  • Which way are the pointing?

Results: If you have Hip External Rotation, the knees will be pointing outwards.

The following muscles will be need to be addressed with exercises:

Tight and/or Overactive Muscles: (External Rotators)

  • Gluteus Maximus
  • Posterior portion of Gluteus Medius
  • Piriformis
  • Obturator Internus/Externus
  • Gemellus superior/Inferior

Weak and/or Inhibited Muscles: (Internal Rotators)

  • Anterior Gluteus Medius
  • Tensor Fasciae Latae
  • Adductor Magnus

If you have Externally Rotated Hips that are causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

c) Knee: Tibial external rotation

tibial external rotation duck feet posture

Tibial External Rotation is where the tibia (shin bone) rotates outwards relative to the femur (upper leg bone).

This can cause the shin bones and feet to point outwards.

Test for Tibial External Rotation:

  • Whilst standing, locate the following land marks:
    • Middle of knee cap
    • Midline of Tibia (Shin bone)

Results: If you have Tibial External Rotation, the midline of tibia will be outside of the alignment of the patella.

(Note: It is common for this to occur in conjunction with Knock Knee.)

The following muscles will need to be addressed:

Tight and/or Overactive Muscles:

  • Lateral Hamstring
  • Lateral Calf

Weak and/or Inhibited Muscles:

  • Popliteus
  • Medial Hamstring

If you have a Tibial External Rotation that is causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

d) Ankle: Limited dorsiflexion

ankle duck feet posture

Ankle Dorsiflexion is the movement where the foot bends backwards towards the shin bone.

An adequate amount of ankle dorsiflexion is required to keep the foot in a relatively neutral position during walking.

If there is a limited amount of ankle dorsiflexion, this can result in the foot externally rotating outwards in an attempt to compensate for the lack of mobility.

This will lead to the feet pointing outwards during walking.

After walking like this over a prolonged amount of time, this can eventually lead to habitually out turned feet in the static standing position.

Test For Ankle Dorsiflexion:


  • Face a wall.
  • Assume the lunge position so that your knee on your front leg is touching the wall.
  • Whilst keeping your knee in contact with the wall, keep sliding your foot back as far as you can go.
  • Aim to get the front of your foot furthest away from the wall before the:
    • Heel lifts off the ground or
    • Foot arch collapses.
  • Measure the distance between the tip of your big toe and the wall.

Results: If your toe is less than 4 inches from the wall, then you have limited Ankle Dorsiflexion.

The following muscles will need to be addressed:

Tight and/or Overactive Muscles:

If you have Limited Ankle Dorsiflexion that is causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

e) Foot: Overpronation

flat feet duck feet posture

Overpronation of the foot involves the medial arch of the foot collapsing towards the ground.

This may result in out turned feet.

Test for Foot Pronation:


  • Whilst standing, have a look at your feet.
  • There should be an obvious arch on the inside of your feet.

As a rough guideline: You should be able to fit the tips of your fingers underneath the arch of your foot.

Results: If there is no gap between the bottom of your foot and the floor, then you probably have overpronation in the foot.

The following muscles will need to be addressed:

Tight and/or Overactive Muscles:

  • Peroneus Longus
  • Peroneus Brevis
  • Peroneus Tertius

Weak and/or Inhibited Muscles:

  • Tibialis Posterior
  • Tibialis Anterior
  • Plantar Fascia
  • Flexor Hallucis Longus
  • Flexor Digitorum

If you have Over Pronation Of The Foot that is causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

f) Big Toe: Limited Extension

big toe extension

Big Toe Extension is where the big toe bends backwards.

If you have limitations in this movement, the foot can pivot outwards as you push off the front of the foot during walking.

After walking like this over a prolonged amount of time, this can eventually lead to habitually out turned feet in the static standing position.

Test for Big Toe Extension:


  • Place your ankle on your opposite knee.
  • Pull your foot backwards towards the shin bone.
  • Pull your big toe backwards as far as possible.
  • Measure the angle of the big toe.

Results: If you do not have at least 60 degrees of big toe extension, you have a stiff toe!

The following muscle will need to be addressed:

Tight Muscles:

  • Flexor Hallucis Longus

There may also be significant stiffness in the Big Toe joint (1st Metatarsal Phalangeal joint). This is referred to as Hallux Rigidus.

If you have Limited Big Toe Extension that is causing your Duck Feet Posture, you will benefit from performing these specific exercises.

G) Structural issues

Changes to the structure of bones and/or joints can result in Duck Feet Posture.

Unfortunately – there is going to be a certain limit (… perhaps, if any at all) as to how much this can be changed by exercise alone.

(Note: Having larger thighs may also cause the legs to rotate outwards. This can be addressed by reducing the size of the overall thigh region.)

For those of you who have a structural cause:

Focus on strengthening the lower limb with exercises so that your body is able to comfortably tolerate the loads associated with the feet pointing outwards.

a) Femoral Retroversion:

This involves the angle between the femoral head and femur body being wider than normal.

As a result, the foot turns outwards to better position the femoral head in the hip socket.

Test for Femoral retroversion:


  • Lie on your stomach.
  • Bend your knee to 90 degrees.
  • Perform External rotation:
    • Drop your foot towards the mid line of the body.
  • Perform Internal rotation:
    • Drop your foot away from the mid line of the body.

Results: If you have excessive External Rotation AND minimal Internal Rotation, then you may have Femoral Retroversion.

b) Tibial Torsion (External):

The knee joint is structured in a way where the tibia is naturally sits in an externally rotated position as compared to the line of the femur.

Test for Tibial torsion:


  • Lie on your stomach.
  • Bend your knees to 90 degrees.
  • Compare the line of the femur and foot.

Results: If the foot is angled outwards in relation to the line of femur, then you may have Tibial External Torsion.

H) Combination of all of the above

It it not unusual if multiple areas of the body are contributing to the development of Duck Feet Posture.

If this is the case – It is likely that you will need to perform the specific exercises for ALL of the areas involved.

Exercises to fix Duck feet posture

Now that you know exactly WHICH AREA of the body your Duck Feet Posture is originating from, you will need to perform the exercises that are specific to that area.

(Performing exercises in the area that is not relevant to you may lead to more issues.)

NOTE: If you are not sure which area of the body is causing your feet to point outwards, please make sure that you thoroughly read the Causes section before proceeding to the following exercise section.

a) Areas To Address:

(Remember – You only need to focus on the areas which are related to your Duck Feet Posture. You can ignore the other areas.)

  1. Pelvis
  2. Hip
  3. Knee
  4. Ankle
  5. Foot
  6. Big Toe

a) Next:

Once you have addressed the specific area, make sure to follow up with these exercises:

  1. Important Exercises
  2. Keep Feet Straight

1. Pelvis

Perform the following exercises if your pelvis is in a Posterior Pelvic Tilt.

I have a complete blog post on addressing this issue.

Check out the post: How To Fix Posterior Pelvic Tilt.

(For the purpose of this post – I have included the 3 main exercises to get you started.)

a) Hamstring Releases

hamstring releases


  • Sit on the floor.
  • Place the back of your thigh on top of a foam roller.
  • Apply an appropriate amount of body weight.
  • Roll the back of the thigh over the foam roller.
  • Make sure to cover the entire length of the muscle.
  • Duration: 2 minutes on each side.

b) Upper Hamstring Stretch

hamstring stretch


  • Whilst standing, place the leg that you would like to stretch in front of you.
  • Keep the knee of the front leg in a slightly bent position.
  • Hinge forwards at the hip joint.
    • Keep your back completely straight.
    • Keep your foot pointed forwards.
  • Ensure that you can feel the stretch in the back of your upper leg.
  • Duration: Hold stretch for 1 minute.
  • Repeat on both sides.

For more stretches: Hamstring Stretches

c) Standing Pelvic Tilts

standing pelvic tilts


  • Stand with your hips stacked directly over your ankles.
  • Perform an anterior pelvic tilt:
    • “Imagine your pelvis is a bucket full of water and the water is tipping forwards.”
  • Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Relax into a neutral pelvic position.
  • Perform 30 repetitions.

2. Hip

Perform the following exercises if your hips are externally rotated.

a) Gluteal Releases

duck feet posture releases


  • Sit on the floor.
  • Place the back of your hip on a massage ball.
  • Apply an appropriate amount of body weight on top of the massage ball.
  • Perform circular motions.
  • Make sure to cover all areas at the back of the hip.
  • Duration: 2 minutes each side.

b) Gluteal Stretch

stretches for duck feet posture


  • Sit down on the edge of a chair.
  • Place your ankle on top of the other knee.
  • Sit as tall as possible as to create a prominent arch in your lower back.
  • Whilst maintaining this arch, pull your knee towards the opposite shoulder.
  • Lean your torso forwards.
  • Aim to feel a stretch in the back of the hip.
  • Hold for 60 seconds.

c) Strengthen Hip Internal Rotators

hip internal rotation exercise


  • Sit on the floor with your leg straight in front of you.
  • Rotate your leg inwards.
  • Aim to feel a contraction in the muscles in your groin.
  • Hold this position for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 20 times.


hip internal rotation

If you lack hip INTERNAL rotation:, the hip may compensate by adopting the duck foot position (externally rotated hips).

To completely address this issue: You will need to make sure that you have an adequate amount of internal rotation available in the hip joint.

Do you want to improve your hip mobility?

See Post: Increase Hip Internal Rotation

3. Knee

Perform the following exercises if you have Tibial External Rotation.

a) Lateral Hamstring Release

lateral hamstring release


  • Sit on the floor.
  • Place a massage ball underneath the outside part of the back of your knee.
  • Place your hands on top of your lower thigh region.
  • Proceed to apply a firm amount of downward pressure.
  • Guide your leg left/right on top of the ball to cover more areas.
  • Continue for 1 minute.
  • Repeat on other side.

b) Popliteus Strengthening

exercises for duck feet posture


  • Sit down with your hip/knees bent at 90 degrees.
  • Keep your knee pointing forwards throughout the exercise.
  • Turn your shin bone inwards.
    • (Internal rotation of the tibia bone.)
  • Make sure your foot does not lift off the ground.
  • Repeat 30 times.
  • Repeat on the other leg.

c) Knee Push Outs

gluteus medius strengthening


  • Sit down on the edge of a chair.
  • Have your feet shoulder-width apart.
  • Keep feet pointing forwards.
  • Whilst keeping the base of your big toe in contact with the floor, push your knees out to the side as much as possible.
  • Aim to feel your foot arch and outside hip muscles activate.
  • Hold for 10 seconds.
  • Perform 5-10 repetitions.
  • Progression: Loop a resistance band around your knees to provide increased resistance.

4. Ankle

Perform the following exercises if you have limited Ankle Dorsiflexion.

I have a complete blog post on addressing this issue.

Check out the post here: How To Increase Ankle Dorsiflexion.

(For the purpose of this post – I have included the 3 main exercises to get you started.)

a) Calf Release

how to fix duck feet posture


  • Place your calf muscle on top of a foam roller or massage ball. 
  • Put your other leg on top of this leg.
  • Whilst keeping the bottom leg relaxed, use your top leg to apply pressure down towards the foam roller. 
  • Roll your leg from side to side to help cover more areas of the muscle.
  • Do this for 2 minutes on each side.

b) Calf Stretch

calf stretch


  • Place the ball of your foot as high as possible against a wall. (see above)
  • Keep your heel planted on the floor.
  • Lock your knee straight.
  • Learn forward into your ankle.
  • Aim to feel a deep stretch sensation at the back of the calf.
  • Hold for 1-2 minutes.

c) Ankle Joint Mobilization

ankle joint mobilization


  • Place your foot onto a stool.
  • Using your body weight, proceed to plunge forward as to place pressure on the front ankle.
  • Keep the heels of your front leg in contact with the stool throughout movement.
  • Repeat 30 times.
  • Note: You can use a resistance band (as set up as above) to encourage more joint movement

5. Foot

Perform the following exercises if you have Overpronation of the Feet.

I have a complete blog post on addressing this issue.

Check out the post here: How To Fix Flat Feet.

(For the purpose of this post – I have included the 3 main exercises to get you started.)

a) Peroneal Release

release to peroneal


  • Sit on the floor.
  • Place the outside of your lower leg on a massage ball.
  • Apply pressure over the ball.
  • Make sure to cover the whole outer side of the lower leg.
  • Draw circles with your ankle to increase the release.
  • Duration: 2 minutes per side

b) Arch Strengthening

arch strengthening


  • Stand with your feet facing forwards and shoulder width apart.
  • Whilst keeping your toes relaxed, proceed to scrunch the under-surface of your foot.
    • Imagine that you are dragging the base of your big toe backwards.
  • Aim to feel a strong contraction of the muscles underneath your foot.
  • Hold this for 5-10 seconds.
  • Repeat 20 times.

c) Arch Loading with Lean

foot arch exercise


  • Stand with your feet shoulder width apart.
  • Keep your arches lifted throughout the exercise.
    •  (See the above exercise: Arch Strengthening)
  • Keeping your legs straight, lean your whole body forwards from the ankles.
    • You will need to dig your toes into the ground to prevent you from falling forward.
    • You can perform this exercise in front of a wall if you feel you are going to fall forward.
  • Use your feet/toe muscles to prevent yourself from falling and return to the starting position.
  • Aim to feel a firm contraction in the muscles underneath your foot.
  • Repeat 10 times.

6. Big toe

Perform the following exercises if you have limited Big Toe Extension.

a) Flexor Hallucis Longus Release

increase big toe extension


  • Place your foot on top of a massage ball.
  • Position the ball so that it covers the inner side of the bottom of the foot.
  • Apply a firm amount of body weight on top of the massage ball.
  • Continue for 1 minute.
  • Repeat on the other side.

b) Stretch


  • Place the undersurface of the big toe onto the corner of the wall.
  • Aim to get the foot as close to the wall as possible.
  • Lean your foot into the wall to create a stretch of the big toe.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.

c) Push Off Big Toe

(This exercise will help improve your walking pattern by preventing the foot from pivoting outwards during walking.)

gait pattern


  • Assume a lunge position. (see above)
    • The foot at the back will be the side targeted.
    • Make sure that your big toe is extended back as far as possible without compromising the alignment of your foot.
  • Push the tip of your big toe into the ground as you point your foot against the ground.
  • Place as much of your body weight onto the back leg that you can comfortably tolerate.
  • Return your weight back to the ball of the foot.
  • Repeat 20 times.

7. Important Exercises

The following exercises are designed to encourage you to keep the ideal alignment of your leg.

The aim is to keep your knee and foot pointing FORWARDS throughout each exercise.

a) Wall Lunge

support wall plunge


  • Place your foot onto a step.
  • Have both of your hands supported onto a wall that is in front of you.
  • For the leg on the step, keep the knee and foot pointing forwards throughout this exercise.
  • Lunge forwards.
    • Move your knee forwards as much as you can without allowing the foot to turn outwards.
  • Provide as much support from your hands as required.
  • Perform 20 repetitions.
  • Progression:
    • Allow the knee to move more forwards.
    • Gradually reduce the amount of support being provided by your arms.

b) Step Up

supported step up


  • Place your foot onto a step.
  • (If required – You may use your hands for support.)
  • For the leg on the step, keep the knee and foot pointing FORWARDS throughout this exercise.
  • Perform a step up.
  • Slowly lower yourself back to the starting position.
  • Perform 20 repetitions.
  • Progression:
    • Use less arm support
    • Use a higher step

c) Toe Tap


  • Stand up right.
  • (You may use your hands for support if required.)
  • For the leg that is on the ground, keep the knee and foot pointing FORWARDS throughout this exercise.
  • Slowly reach and tap your toe as far forwards as possible.
  • Return to the starting position.
  • Perform 20 repetitions.

d) Single Leg Balance

single leg balance


  • Balance on one leg.
  • Make sure to keep your foot and knee pointing FORWARDS at all times.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on the other side.

8. Keep your feet straight!

Over time, the suggested exercises will naturally help your foot achieve a more neutral position (that is, pointing forwards).

In addition to the exercises – I would also recommend that you attempt to keep your feet straight (without forcing it) whilst standing, walking and exercising.

(This is easier said than done… but do what you can do!)

With time, consistency and effort, it will become easier for you to place your feet in the neutral position.

Common Questions

Need more help? Please feel free to ask me any questions in the comment section down below.

a) Is Duck Feet Posture Bad?

Having Duck Feet Posture is not inherently bad.

The presence of out turned feet does not necessarily mean that you will have issues associated with it.

However, that being said, out turned feet may lead to undesirable compensations throughout the whole body.

This may predispose you to problems such as:

b) What happens if only ONE foot is pointing outwards?

There are 2 situations where this can occur:

1. You have a 1 sided issue:

This can be addressed by performing the above exercises on the appropriate side only.

2.  Your pelvis is rotated:

rotated pelvis

A twisted pelvis can result in one foot being turned out to the side.

For exercises to address this issue completely:

See post: Exercises To Fix A Rotated Pelvis

c) How Long Will It Take To Fix?

This is a difficult question to answer as there are so many factors that need to be considered.

Generally speaking – you should see notable improvements within 6-12 weeks of performing the exercises consistently.


Duck Feet Posture is a postural presentation where the feet are turned outwards.

It can lead to undesirable compensations throughout the entire body.

It is important to understand which exact area is leading to your Duck Feet Posture as this will determine which specific exercises are required.

The main areas: Pelvis, Hip, Knee, Ankle, Foot and/or Big Toe.

In some people – it may be required to address multiple areas to completely address this issue.

What to do next…

1. Any questions?… (Leave me a comment down below.)

2. Come join me on the Facebook page. Let’s keep in touch!

3. Start doing the exercises!

The content presented on this blog post is not medical advice and should not be treated as such. It is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use of the content on this page is at your sole risk. Seek medical guidance before starting any exercise. For more information: Medical disclaimer.

187 thoughts on “How To Fix Duck Feet Posture”

  1. Hey Mark,
    Alyssa here. I was talking with you about a month ago. I was thinking 2 things regarding my out toeing. 1.) How do I know if my hips are rotated out when I stand? It feels okay so I assume that is enough to know at least the femur and hips are neutral? I know it seems obvious to know. Only when I lay down my legs (and knees) do turn outward so I know I have tight external rotators and weak internal rotators. But still, when I try to rotate my foot inward when I am standing it is VERY difficult. It basically arches up a lot OR I have to turn my entire leg inwards.
    Also 2) My big toe has extension when I place it on my leg but when I try and lift it up from the ground its much less extension. Does that matter?
    I found my P.T notes from when I went last year. 12 sessions and a slight less pain but no progress in what we wanted. “Limited R hip IR/EXT and R ankle DF as well as associated weakness in active movement (R ankle INV included) contributing to excessive forefoot abduction, excessive R ankle pronation and medial patellar/knee tracking during albulation and SLS”.

  2. Hey Mark,
    First off, your page is amazing. Thank you for all of the work you put into it.
    So I noticed a couple of years ago within a few months of going from a walking job to a desk job I developed pretty significant out-toeing on just my right foot. I have worked out for years and am relatively strong. This really concerned me because it was SUDDEN. Like my feet were both straight before. Now i get knee pain. When I turn my foot to be straight, my hip and knee turn inward and feels very uncomfortable. My tibia seems to be relatively in line with my knee too btw, so tibial external rotation doesn’t feel too accurate?

    I went to P.T and they said they really couldn’t figure it out. Which shocked me. We did some work on strengthening my ankles and adductors anyway. We didn’t do it long maybe 3 sessions for 4 weeks and I saw no improvement. My right leg glute is much much weaker which MAY be the problem. Now my right leg calf and ankle are tight from my foot turning out and my weight distributing in a weird way. I feel like maybe it’s the lateral calf/hamstring that is tight? Maybe? But that’s a chicken or the egg thing.

    Also my right leg has a much much weaker glute and much more limited internal rotation. and I walk much more on the outside of the right foot now because it just doesn’t feel stable.

    Going over the tests on your page, I honestly dont think I fall in any of those categories for possible causes. Any info you can give me would be awesome. Thank you so much for your time.

    • Hello Alyssa,

      You mentioned that when you shifted to a desk job, the right foot started to pivot outwards.

      This makes me think that your out turned foot may be associated to the way that you are sitting. Are you sitting crossed legged with your right leg on top? This can cause your hip (and foot) to pivot outwards.

      This may cause the hip external rotators (back of hip muscles) to become tight. This may also explain why you have limited internal rotation.

      You can check out this post to get more internal rotation in the hip: Hip Internal Rotation Exercises.

      Another thing to check is if you have a rotated pelvis. See post: Rotated Pelvis Exercise.


      • Interesting!! Thank you for the quick reply. The info on a right tilted pelvis correlates with a lot my symptoms. My pelvis isn’t really rotated to the right that mjch but a little.
        Also with the hip thing, I keep thinking that BUT my foot turned out isn’t from my hip. Like I said my knee and hip are straight when my foot is out, It doesn’t really feel like it’s twisted out at all.

      • Hi Alyssa,

        If there is no rotation in the hip, then I would then assume that the out turning of the foot might actually becoming from the ankle/foot it self.

        If you take a photo of the back of your heels whilst standing, is the Achilles tendon vertical? or is it bowing towards one side?

        Also – check to see if you have equal amount of ankle dorsiflexion in your ankles. Limited ankle dorsiflexion may cause the feet to out turn as well. (See post: Ankle Dorsiflexion)


      • Also my hip rotates to the right (so the right is further back) which is strange because the right and left tight/underactive muscles listed seem to be the opposite for me.

      • Hi! I checked and my ankle dorsiflexion on my twisted out ankle is 4.5 inches from the wall. And there is no bowing at the ankle. I am noticing a lot of tightness in my peroneal longus and brevis from I guess my foot splay now.

      • Also wanted to add, if I don’t turn my foot out and keep my foot straight (with the rest of my leg then slightly turned inward) I fall to the outside of my foot

    • I’m so sorry to respond again but I noticed something very important today. It’s pretty clear that my foot juts out at the ankle and foot. It turns down and out

      • Hi Alyssa,

        I wonder if you have tight outer structures of your ankle such as the peroneus and toe extensors.

        These muscle could pivot your foot outwards.

        Also, do you have high arches? (See post: high arches)


      • I actually do have high arches. I meant to include this post as well – explaining the foot turning down and out. It’s not drop foot, I dont think, as I can move my ankle around fine. (I did make an appointment with my neurologist just incase).

      • Hi Alyssa,

        I have a feeling that you might have high arches with the hindfoot (heel region) everting. This basically means your foot turns downwards and outwards.

        To address this, you will need to get your arches to spread out. You might benefit from the looking at the High Arches blog post that I link previously on some exercise to achieve this.

        Another thing to note is that when walking, make sure that you are not overly tensing your big toe as in gets in contact with the ground. Allow the big toe to extend all the way backwards before pushing off your foot.


  3. Hey! My right foot is pointing outwards and I think hypermobility in my right hip is causing this. Do you have any tips/ exercises for me?

    • Hey Izzy,

      If your hypermobility is leading to the said right foot position, you’ll likely benefit from strengthening and engaging the muscles around the hip.

      If your foot is pointing outwards, I would assume that your hip might be in a degree of external rotation. If this is the case, you will need to focus on strengthening the hip muscles that are responsible for internal rotation.

      You can check out this post: How to improve hip internal rotation. (but focus on the strengthening aspect, and not the stretches.)


  4. Hey! I really appreciate your blog post about outward pointing feet. I hope you can help me. I have big problem with my right foot, it is pointing outwards. The arch is pretty flat and slightly pronated. I have really tight hamstrings, hips, back of the hips, glute and front side of my tigh on the right leg. I have been a many health care givers and one said I have posterior pelvic tilt. I only get exercises that strengthens the tighs and stomach, like the bridge. These exercises makes it almost unbearable for me, the hamstrings get so tight that I can’t barely walk. What is your advice for me?

    • Hi Isabella,

      Thanks for the question.

      If your tight hamstrings are driving most of your issues, you might need to address this area first.

      Have you tried some hamstring stretches? Tight hamstrings can cause a posterior pelvic tilt.

      It can also cause a posture called Sway back Posture (see post for more info)

      Also – have you been screen for disc issues in the lower back +/- sciatic nerve issue? This can also cause pain/tightness down the back of the thigh.


      • Thank you for your reply.

        I do hamstring stretches all the time. When I do this, the foot gets better, not pointing out that much. But! The tensions in my hamstrings and backside of my hips always comes back.
        Now I have tried to do some exercises for glutes strength every night, but they make my hamstrings sooo tight. And when hamstrings are tight, the foot points outwards.

  5. Hi, could you help me? It seems when I walk, I walk with my feet going outwards while my knee doesn’t turn with it, but my shin does. So I thought I might have external rotation of the tibia from what I read in your blog post. Is external rotation of the tibia actually possible to correct with exercise if it’s a structural issue then how can I fix my shin alignment with training? It affects my right leg more than my left leg and I have very limited inward motion of my right foot, when I try to turn it inwards it just doesn’t get anywhere and causes discomfort. And I keep getting calluses/corn on the sole of my big right toe, I guess that’s from the way I walk.

    • Hey Dan,

      Sounds like you have tibial torsion which is most likely due to the way that you walk. If you are born like this (i.e. structural issue), it is not likely that you’ll be able to change the relative position of your knee and foot whilst the leg is in a more straightened position.

      Having said that, I find that in most people you can actually improve the relative knee/foot position when the knee is in a bending position (squat, lunge, stepping up etc).

      If you lack internal rotation of the tibia, you will need to release/stretch outer hamstrings, manually rotate your tibia into internal rotations and strengthening popliteus muscle.


  6. Hi, I’m Isabella from Sweden. I really appreciate your blog on outward pointing feet.
    I have a problem with my right foot, it is pointing outwards and I have been to many health care givers, and they all say different things. One said I have Posterior pelvic tilt and I believe it, cause my hamstrings, hip and glute on my right leg is extremely tight. But I always get exercises that will strengthen my thighs and stomach (like the bridge) and that makes my glute and hamstrings so tight it is almost unbearable and the foot turns extremely outwards. It’s hard to walk being that tight. Do you have any advice for me?
    Best regards, Isabella

  7. Thank you for this resource. My diagnosis with only right foot out-toeing (from Orthopedic Doctor) is that both femur and tibia have slight twist (i believe this is femoral and tibial retroversion). Doctor indicated that PT will not change this, as it is structural and not muscular. I wonder if exercises to correct the compensation would actually cause discomfort or improper position in knee or hip, since the both is congenitally rotated. Additionally, I’m not clear which of the above exercises are appropriate. I understand that I can’t change the outgoing on the right, but I want to make sure that it does not cause other trickle down or up negative muscular or postural issues. thank you!

    • Hello T,

      As you can’t really change a structural issue, the exercises listed on this blog post may not be suitable for you.

      If you change the position of your foot, you will likely cause dysfunction in the hip and/or knee.

      My advice would be to strengthen your lower limb within your capabilities (eg. squats, lunges, balance exercises, step up/down) so that your body is able to tolerate a toe out position.


  8. Hi, I’m Harini. I read through your blogs which is very interesting and informative. I have duck feet on one leg and am working on corrective exercises despite which I’m having pain in the peroneal tendons. There has been no swelling but there’a discomfort and pain. Can you please suggest me some stretches and exercises to relieve the pain?

    • Hello Harini,

      If the peroneal muscles are tight, you can try releasing and stretching them to see if that helps. But if you have duck feet posture, it is likely you are over using these muscles as you walk.


  9. Hi, I tried doing your joint mobilization exercise but am having an issue with it. When I lean my knee forward, my foot seems to turn outwards; I cannot stop it from moving. Maybe it’s too stiff? It’s also hard to keep the knee straight with I try to keep my foot straight. What should I do?

  10. Hi there, I wasn’t exactly sure what was causing my duck feet, so I will briefly explain my issues. When I stand straight, my feet go outwards and my knees stay straight. Also, my right ankle is often very stiff, after walking for long or playing sports my ankle seems to get very tight – My foot may have limited flexibility. Lastly, after doing squats, i often get pain in my knees and when I bend my knees they often seem to go inwards. Please could you identify the problems I may have so I can try to use your resources effectively

    • Hey Daniel,

      If your knees are straight and feet point outwards, I would suspect that you might have external rotation of the tibia and/or pronated feet.

      With external rotation of the tibia, This is most likely a structural issue, but can be improved when the knees starts to bend. (see the exercises on this blog post)

      With foot pronation, if this is impacting your movement and leading to your said symptoms, please feel free to have a look at this blog post: How to fix flat feet.

      If you have limited mobility in your ankle, make sure that you check to see if you have an adequate amount of ankle dorsiflexion. This could be due to old ankle injuries, how you walk etc. Limited ankle dorsiflexion can also cause your knees to move inwards during a squat.


  11. Hi Mark!

    After the test you have mentioned, I found I had a femoral retroversion and normal Tibial torsion(~10 degrees thigh foot angle). At the same time, I have mild to moderate flat feet (therefore pronation)and was diagnosed with flat spinal curvature(non-pathologic). However, I believe I had a hyperextended knee and an anterior pelvis tilts (when standing relaxed) instead of a posterior pelvis tilt which you had mentioned in the flat back posture.

    I don’t know why but once I brace my core, the pelvis and knee will get into a relatively normal position. Sadly, the problem of the upper body can not be fixed by doing it. I can feel my upper body leans backwards and is not aligned with my lower body.

    Right now I’m pretty sure I should stick with the flat feet exercise and exercise particularly for my flat spinal curvature. However, I am not sure what should I do for my other bad postures. Do you have any suggestions?

    In addition, do you suggest people with femoral retroversion place their hip at greater external rotation during daily life(like walking with feet pointing outwards) and workouts(like sumo deadlift, wider stand squat with feet pointing more outwards) as they have limited hip internal rotation or it is more natural for them?

    Best regards,

    • Hi John,

      If you have true femoral retroversion, you might not be able to completely get everything in line without compromising the hip joint integrity. Keep in mind – the hip will externally rotate (and thus feet and knees point outwards) to try to make more room in the hip joint). The next best option is to optimize every other joint as much as possible.

      In terms of the pelvis position, if you are heavily into an anterior pelvic tilt, you’ll likely need to address that with these exercises: How to Fix Anterior Pelvic Tilt.

      If this is difficult, I would check to make sure that you have an adequate amount of internal rotation in the hip to allow the pelvis to rotate back into a more neutral position. More info here: Internal Rotation of the hip.

      To answer your question in regards to toe position, I would suggest that you keep the foot pointing outwards as this is actually a more neutral position of the hip. You’ll just need to make sure that you feet are strong and can handle this toe out position.


  12. Sorry to bother you again, I have one more question.

    I noticed that when I try to strengthen my posterior tibialis, I feel that my peroneal muscles are working. I wonder if this has lead to my peroneal muscles becoming too tight and pulling my foot to the side. This only occurs on my right side.

    Also, when sitting on the ground with my legs straight (and knee caps vertical), I notice that my foot is tilted not only outwards, but my big toe is closer to me than my 5th toe (my foot is tilted on both the x and y axis such that my 5th toe is farthest away from my knee cap). I don’t know if this is relevant or makes any sense.

    I have been doing the stretch where you cup your toes and pull in order to stretch the lateral foot muscles, as well as arch strengthening and other foot stretches.

    Any help is greatly appreciated!

    • Hi there Adam,

      If you feel tension in the peroneals whilst performing tibialis posterior strengthening exercises, you are either using the peroneals to push the base of the big toe down OR you are inverting your heel.

      If your big toe in closer towards you and the bottom of the foot is facing more towards the mid line, this sounds like you are describing supination of the foot.


      • This sounds Iike what I have. My foot points outwards so that it is not supinated.

        What should I do about my overactive personal muscles?

        Many thanks!

      • Hey Adam,

        If you are inverting your heel, you can release/stretch peroneals.

        Then follow up with tibialis posterior exercises (but it sounds like you’ll need to make the exercise easier by not placing your full body weight on your foot as you perform the exercise)


      • I am almost certain it is that I cant push my big toe down. I believe this because hero’s pose with my feet straight back is only tight on my right foot. How should I address this? Also, what could cause this issue to arise in the first place?

        Many thanks again!

      • When I stretch the peroneal muscles using the foot pull exercise, how do I not make the supination worse? It feels like the stretching I am doing is contributing to my foot tilting to the side (toes farther from my kneecap).

        It seems like there are a few things I can do:

        Fix my rotated pelvis (which I think came about after my foot problems).
        Improve ankle dorsiflexion (tightness in foot, not calf).
        Stretch out side of foot and lower leg muscles.
        Strengthen arch.

        Have you ever seen somebody with what I am describing? I don’t see my foot problem anywhere on the internet.

        Many thanks again!

  13. I am a 17 year old long distance runner. Last year, I noticed that my right leg felt shorter than my left. I have fat pad atrophy under my right foot. My right arch is especially flat, and is turned outwards. My right oblique, lower back, hip flexor, and adductor are tight. My theory is that after an injury I had 1.5 yrs ago, my right arch collapsed, which led to duck feet posture on my right, and then fat pad atrophy and tightness higher up the chain. Also, I have very limited dorsiflexion on my right foot. However, I feel the tightness in the front of my foot. My peroneus is also tighter on my left side. Maybe this was caused by a previous ankle sprain? (I don’t remember ankle sprains pre imbalance, but got 3 twists in the same week on my right foot 10 months ago, which might have been caused by a tight peroneus and weak foot.) Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    • Hey Adam,

      Make sure you have good control of that right foot. You will likely benefit from addressing the arch: How to fix Flat Feet.

      Addressing this should help with some/most of your symptoms.

      If there are remaining issues especially when you are running, make sure that you have an adequate amount of ankle dorsiflexion. See post: Ankle Dorsiflexion.

      If there are still issues, there might be something happening at the pelvis level. Check to see if you have a Rotated Pelvis and/or Lateral Pelvic Tilt as these can place more pressure on one side of the body.


      ps. Try to add single leg exercises to improve your leg control

      • First off, thank you so much for your response! I have a few quick questions:

        1) Is it possible for me to reverse fat pad atrophy from my unilateral duck feet posture?

        2) Is the banded Achilles stretch a long term fix? Does it matter if I don’t feel the stretch in my Achilles/calf during the stretch?

        Many thanks!

      • Hi Adam,

        1. It is possible to eliminate the pain/symptoms associated with the fat pad atrophy, however, I am not too sure if you can “re-grow” more fat pad. (It could be possible but I personally have not seen it.)

        2. You need to feel the stretch to get the most out of the stretch. Ultimately- you’ll need to address the cause of your fat pad atrophy. This could be solely related to the duck foot, lack of ankle dorsiflexion, high or low arches, training intensity/type, foot wear etc.


  14. Hello
    When I point my feet forward/straight, my knee cave inward slightly, for this case should I keep my knee straight or toe straight before solving the issue by doing the exercises mentioned above?

    • Hi Javier,

      This suggests that your tibia may be externally rotated. (see post)

      It can also mean that your foot is rotated outwards in which you will need to address this as well.

      If you have high arches, see this post. If you have low arch, see this post.


      • Thanks Mark
        My tibia is certainly rotated externally
        I start doing the exercises above every day and hopefully I will see some improvements soon.

  15. Hi Mark

    My right foot points outwards, would this usually be a sign of an externally rotated hip? Or can a foot that points outwards also be in conjunction with an internally rotated hip?

    Thank you :)

    • Hi Linsday,

      A food that point outwards can occur in conjunction with a hip that is internally or externally rotated.

      It really depends on what the rest of the leg is doing.


  16. Hi Mark, my right foot is externally rotated and when I turn my foot straight, my knee turns inward. My right foot isn’t flat, it has quite a high arch. I don’t have any signs of pelvic rotation other than when I exercise, my hips are asymmetrical.

    1. Does a foot pointing outwards usually mean that the external rotators are tight?

    2. My right foot points out, but it’s my left that is more pronated. Is it possible that I have a right pelvic rotation?

    • Hi there,

      1. Not necessarily. It sounds like you might have external rotation of the tibia bone. This would explain why the knee rotating inwards when the foot is straight.

      2. Yes – this is definitely a possibility.


  17. Hi Mark,
    I’ve been skateboarding for about 7 years now and the last 4 years I have had really bad knee pain. At first I thought it was jumpers knee (patellar tendonitis) due from all of the jumping and impact from skating, but now looking at my legs I can see that I have duck feet, but could I also have jumpers knee as well? The pain in my knee can be pretty bad when I’m walking up stairs or standing up for ages and even when I’m sitting down I will still have pain.
    What knee excises do you think will work best?

    • Hey Jaydon,

      It is possible that Duck feet posture may predispose you to placing extra stress onto your patellar tendon. (especially if you are doing a lot of jumping)

      I think you would benefit from a progressive tendon loading program.

      Have a look at these exercises to get an idea of what you could do: Knee exercises. (The exercises listed here are more for clicking in the knee, but they can be applied in your situation as well)


  18. Hi Mark,

    what kind of specialist should I see to find out if my external tibial rotation is a structural issue or if it is a functional issue that could be fixed by exercise?

    • Hey Jack,

      I would give the exercise a try over the next few months to see if you can get any changes.

      If there is no response, it may suggest that it is structural.

      In terms of who to see, most healthcare providers like physical therapists, chiros, osteo etc should be able to help you out there.


  19. Mark,

    Since High school JROTC + dance I’ve gravitated toward a turned out stance. When I make my feet parallel, my knees actually face more inward… what in the world is going on? I think I have some Foot Pronation and Hip External Rotation going on… but what about when my feet are parallel? What’s up with that?

    • Hey Brittany,

      Sounds like Tibial External rotation with flat feet. This would explain the knees going inwards as you straighten the foot.

      You can try the exercise mentioned in the blog post for the knee.

      If you would like exercises for flat feet, check out this post: How to fix Flat feet.


  20. What adjustments or what exercises would you recommend for an elderly (87)yo man who has had a hip replacement 1.5 years ago and had his foot turning out from the “get go” after surgery and is now having falls secondary to tripping on the front part of his foot getting caught on things?

    • Yes, he did PT for the full amount of time ordered. And my father is who said that it was externally rotated from the “get go”. But he also said that his PT finally agreed when my dad didn’t improve. I honestly thought that it was a way to stop PT, but I also don’t live near him to have better knowledge on the situation.

      • Hi K Zambrano,

        If the foot turned out wards straight after the surgery, is it possible that the surgeon aligned the whole leg outwards? If this is the case – it is best to consult with the surgeon who performed the surgery.

        If it is due to walking compensations, my first feeling would be that the glutes are tight and/or there is a limitation in the amount hip internal rotation.

        These would probably be the 2 issues that he might need to address first.

        He can release the glutes by sitting a massage ball. Follow this up with glute stretches (best to look on google). And then encourage internal rotation of the hip.


  21. Hey! Im no pro or anything but you have the symptoms I have. Try the Hip External Rotation exercises. Also try to determine if its your piriformis thats causing the problem. It is for me and im now obsessed with stretching it out. I hope this helps

  22. Hi Mark –

    For the popliteus exercise the last step says: “repeat on the other side”. Are you talking about doing this on the other leg? Or are you talking about rotating the foot you are working on in the other direction which appears to be what the associated picture suggests.


  23. Hello Mark,

    Loved your article as I have duck feet as a result of femoral retroversion. I am also a competitive athlete on team Canada for wresting. Lately however, I have been plagued with disgusting knee pain to the point where I can only train a couple times a week as opposed to twice a day. I lost my spot for the Olympic trials as a result. I’ve done everything from rest, taking time off, etc.

    Since my duck feet are a structural consequence, does that mean I’m just doomed and better get ready for a life full of pain?

    I can barely run anymore as shin splints are so bad they turn in to stress fractures. Swimming is all I can do pain free.

    What do you suggest?

    • Hey Aaron,

      Although the duck feet may predispose you to certain knee issues, it certainly 100% does not mean you are doomed!

      You will need to strengthen your knee in as many different positions as possible (as required in wrestling) and gradually progress the amount of load you are placing through your knee.

      The most difficult part of your rehabilitation will likely be doing too much too soon. Take it slow , but always make sure you are progressing.


  24. Hi Mark,

    I have trouble with my hips being externally rotated, and was wondering if that seated glute stretch could be done in a supine position?


  25. Yes I think I might have a rotated pelvis, but which side do you think it would be rotated to? I tried the tests but I’m not certain.
    Only my right leg needs to be in a frog position to fully relax


  26. Hello so ive been trying to fix my posture for awhile and o have duck feet and knee valgus which i been trying to fix using your guides. But when i try to put my feet more in the straight position it looks like knocked knees really badly. I’m just curious on which one i should focus on whether its knocked knees or knee valgus or both. I been really stressed over this and i just don’t want to end up making it worse

    • Hey Mason,

      You don’t want to force your foot forwards if your knee collapses inwards.

      This may suggest that either 1) The shape of your bones is causing Structural Knock Knee or 2) Perhaps you may have tibial external rotation.


    • Hi.
      I think I’ve got this issue.
      I’m a skinny 17 yr old and during this Quarantine, I haven’t move much just sit a lot.
      So my question is that. Can pelvic floor tightness happen from this??

      • Hey Rahul,

        The posterior wall of the pelvic floor muscle group can get tight with a lot of sitting with the hip in external rotation. (sitting with the knees out position)


  27. Hey Mark,

    I noticed that I need my right leg to be in a frog leg position in order to fully relax when I sleep, could you help me finding why?


  28. Hey Mark,

    I have been dealing with a gait issue for a couple years now. I am an avid runner and workout enthusiast. I run 6-8 miles twice per week and then do full body circuits the other two days prefaced by 10-15 mins jump rope. My right side is the effected area; foot splays to exterior, lack of internal hip rotation, shoulder lower on this side as well, leg/femur rolls outward while laying on back idle, lack foot stability on this side. I have read a litany of different things and have a hard time figuring out where the problem originates. The problem seems to be most noticeable while running and jump roping. Running -femur tends to rotated to exterior regardless of how mindful I am of hip control. Jumping rope – oddly my right shoulder rises and left hand lowers to compensate (usually my right shoulder is lower). I am really at a loss. Any insight would be MUCH appreciated.


  29. Can I ask what you think as to whether a certain amount of ‘duck feet’ is normal or even optimal? Looking at the graph in the link below it seems to be the normal state of affairs, but is that because most people have bad posture and we should be aiming for 0 degrees foot progression, or should we actually be accepting of a few degrees of progression angle?

    • Hey John,

      It is likely it is getting more COMMON to walk with duck feet posture.

      Is it more optimal? That really depends on what the shape of the tibia, femur, the knee joint, hip joint, pelvis is doing.

      If all of the above bones and joints are ‘neutral’ (keep in mind this a range), then I would expect the feet should remain fairly straight.

      If it is not significant and is not leading to any issues (or potential issues), I wouldn’t be too worried about it!


    • i believe i have Tibial External Rotation as when i naturally stand my feet go outward with my shin and my knees straight. i think i have knock knee too as when i bend my knee go inward.
      my ankle seem to have limited mobility and i think this is due to the tibial external rotation. when i finish workout i feel knee pain

    • i tried to do Popliteus strengthening but my right ankle has limited inward mobility i can barely turn it inward how can i work on this

      • Hey Travis,

        Work on releases lateral hamstrings and gradually work on tibial internal rotation.

        It might be limited now, but with continued effort, it should start to increase.


  30. Hello Mark, i have a few questions:

    1) Could i still have ankle mobility problems related to duck feet even if i pass this mobility test of yours ?

    2) If i have duck feet due to hip external rotation problems, is it expected for my kness to ”internally collapse” if i forcefully internal rotate my feets to a neutral position ? I’ve read online some people complaining about their knees going inwards if they try to forcefully correct their feets but it doesn’t happen to me, my knees seems to face forward when i do that

    3) What do you think about avoiding running shoes in the process of fixing duck feet?

    Thanks for your time

    • Hi Eduardo,

      1) Yes – especially if the ankle is over pronating to let the knee drive forwards.

      2) Yes – if you over shoot the internal rotation, you can end up with a knock knee presentation.

      3) Do you mean you want to do barefoot running?

      If so – this is a great way to strengthen your feet, BUT, you need to make sure your foot can handle that amount of load.


  31. Hi Mark,
    Do companies make wearable braces for people with duck feet so the foot will remain straight while walking?
    Thank you!

  32. Hi Mark!

    I am a rather complicated case, and I’d love your initial thoughts on the proper exercises for me because I am similar to some of the cases you outline here. I have severe external tibial torsion and supinated feet, below-the-knee edema, and muscle atrophy except for overdeveloped inner calf muscles (medial head gastrocnemius). When mindful of my gait, I can correct my duck walk, but it often causes a slight lateral heel whip of my right leg or more excessive supination in both feet. The right leg has lost more muscle — 1/2 an inch smaller at the broadest circumference to be precise. Seventeen years ago, I had a rare version of lateral foreleg Compartment Syndrome, where both peroneal muscles ruptured both fasciae a few inches above the outer ankle during a college lacrosse sprint workout. A few months after that, I had lateral foreleg Compartment Release surgery to release the rest of those same fasciae. In the past seven years, I have also developed two herniated discs — S1 – L5 and L5 4. Multilevel changes are most pronounced at L5-S1, where a central protrusion contributes to mild neural foraminal stenosis and abuts the descending right S1 nerve root. I am currently working with a team of competent doctors in Boston to find a non-surgical remedy. But they are confused by my complex mix of ailments, muscle imbalances, and gait irregularities. I have been doing Calf Releases with a lacrosse ball and Popliteus Strengthening with Balance Body Functional Footprints. Do you think those are right for me? Are there any other exercises you think I should suggest that my doctors consider adding to my regimen? How long do these muscle imbalances have to last before spinal nerve root damage is seen as the main culprit?

    Thank you so much.

    Keep up the great work!

    Cambridge, MA

    • Hey Matt,

      As you have obvious muscle wasting on that right side and a possible L5 and/or S1 nerve issue, I would make sure the doctors have done a complete neurological examination (reflexes, dermatome sensation, myotome testing, nerve conduction test, nerve tension tests). I would also recommend screening the lumbar spine with provocative tests to see if it influences the right leg)

      If all of these are negative, then it is more likely due to the old injury/surgery of the compartment syndrome. You may have developed an asymetrical gait pattern since 17 years ago when this all happened. These factors could lead to muscle atrophy on that right side.

      Did the tibial external rotation and supination only come about AFTER the injury/surgery? (Could be structural /genetic presentation) Large medial gastroc is quite common in people with out turned toes.

      If so – I would focus on the exercises as mentioned in the blog post. Popliteus training would be very important here. As would releases to the lateral hamstrings.


  33. Many thanks for putting all this great & detailed info together!!
    You make lives better – keep it up!
    Georgette @pedipower

  34. hi there my feet go outwards when i stand straight and if i try put my feet straight, my knee go inward. it effect both my legs but more on the right side. i feel like i have less rotation in my right ankle. what do you think i should do

    • Hey Daniel,

      Might be Tibial torsion: This is where the lower leg bone is rotated outwards relative to the upper leg bone.

      If this is the case – it is best to follow the protocol on the blog post which is mentioned under “Tibial external rotation”


  35. I’m very worried about my left foot! Just my toes are turning outward, I went to a foot doctor who said he didn’t know about why my toes are turning out, and has never seen a issue like this? He suggested orthotics, I do wear over counter orthotics in most of my shoes for years, being a hairstylist and always worn uncomfortable athletic working type shoes never designer shoes ? and I wear custom orthotics for my ski boot. Can a custom orthotic fix the out turning of toes? The out turned toes start from cuboid and cuneiform bones out toward the toes. So all my toes are turning left outward which affects my comfort in ski boots, Birkenstock, or form fitting trainers, with small toe box area. My toes become numb, burning, and tingling only during the wearing of these type shoes, and I don’t want to give up skiing. I do yoga and work on my Periformas muscle most days. Any suggestions on correcting this issue is greatly appreciated.

    • Hello Debbie,

      It sounds like there might be some unwanted rotation happening in the joints to cause your toes to deviate to the side.

      I suspect it could be something to do with how your foot pushes off the floor when you walk.

      Do you have knock knees?


  36. I had a broken ankle and had two surgeries on it I was duck feet and now my left foot and ankle is turned straight will I be able to correct this without surgery and will I be able to walk again

  37. there i saw your article abour correcting duck feet. i have had duck feet for awhile but did not think nothing of it until now. i do martial art and it seem to be affecting me but i do not know what exactly it wrong. when i stand straight my feet outwardand my knee is straight. if i try put my feet straight my knee go out i also cant turn my feet inward to much can

  38. Hey Mark, does hip external rotation causing duck feet makes more sense than other causes if there’s also anterior pelvic tilt along with? Also, is the only stretch you showed for the hips sufficient ? I see other people recommending the other hip stretch where you work the opposite hip flexor

    • Hi Eduardo,

      You can have Duck feet with an anterior pelvic tilt.

      In this scenario, the hips are likely in a whole lot of external rotation.

      Stretching the hip external rotators and strengthening the internal rotators PLUS address the anterior pelvic tilt will be the way to go.

      The stretch shown in the blog post should be enough… but feel free to do others if it hits the appropriate area better.


  39. Hello, Hello, Mr. Wong! I found your site when searching about toe-out feet. It seems to me that my case might be C, tibial external rotation. My knees seem to point forward.
    I have a question. If I’m not mistaken, Katy Bowman explained that the knee pits (back of knees) should point directly backwards, and that if they point outwards (as mine do, even though my knees appear to point forward), then you need to practice externally rotating your hips to pull them together (something like that). If I align my knee pits to point directly backward, my knees and feet point outward a lot. On the contrary, If I’m not mistaken, I saw a video on the chi running website that said to correct duck feet you need to internally rotate your entire leg. (This would make my knee pits even more outward pointing.) This doesn’t make sense to me.
    I have quite a bit of knee pain. I’m 34. I grew up very lazy, so I didn’t develop strength. In college I began to exercise but without proper attention to form. I realized my knees were a big weakness. Currently, I am focusing on Jason Fitzgerald’s injury prevention for runners program. I’m 8 weeks in, and I love it. My knees have never felt better with all of this running and exercise. Yet, I still feel their weakness. For instance, they hurt too much when I try to step up onto a step. Sometime, especially when my knees are tired, I can’t bear my weight, unless I stick my rear out farther behind me. It’s hard to describe. At a certain angle, my knees cannot bear my weight. Sometimes it’s not so bad, but today it was, after this past week of a higher intensity of exercise. This led me to my search. Before I began my exercise program, I asked my doctor to refer me to an orthopedic doctor to check my knees, but she said she couldn’t justify it and advised me to “strengthen those legs!” Please advise ? thank you.

  40. If only one foot is pointing outward does that mean that side of the pelvis is rotated forward or that the opposite side is rotated forward?

  41. Hi mark
    If only one foot is pointing outward does that mean that side of the pelvis is rotated forward or that the opposite side is rotated forward?

  42. Hi mark
    Only my right leg points outward .
    Does this mean that the right pelvis is anteriorly forward and oriented to the left ?

  43. Thank you so much for your help.

    I want to ask my right glute is smaller than my left and my right hip is more externally rotated .

    What do you think is?

  44. Hi Mark,
    It is possible to have one different problem for each leg. Like, for example having tibial external rotation in one leg and in the other limited ankle dorsiflexion?

      • My right foot is duck footed since i was a kid if i complete these techniques daily can the fix themselfs or adjust it.

        Do i have to do this like a regement daily?

      • Hey Sean,

        As long as your duck foot posture is not caused by your structure (bone/joint alignment), then these exercises will help correct your foot position.

        I would perform they as regularly as you can.


    • So, I have sever questions. I believe its my hip that causes this, when I tried the hip exercises (the second example) my hip felt tight and a little sore which I feel is the indicator. I’m currently trying to exercise and lose weight and I’m doing P90x to get back into shape. While I’m sitting down and pointing my feet straight (my right foot is the big issue here) it looks like my knee is going towards my center more than it should, is that normal and I’m just not used to it? Also is it okay for me to be doing P90x as long as I’m fighting to keep my posture correct (which is what I’ve been doing?) I’m a bigger guy and every time I do lunges I always feel out of place like I’m leaning to far to the right and my knee is trying too much to go left, is it safe to believe this is do to my hip issue and will correct itself over time? And finally, do I do these exercises for life or will my hip placement eventually become 2nd nature and I should do them until that time? You’re helping save lives my friend thank you so much if you even just read this.

  45. Hi Mark,

    first of all, thank you for taking up your time to write such articles, they are trully wonderful.
    I think I might be facing with the duck feet myself. My knees are alway straight and whole leg rotated from the knee down. I do have some realy big and well developed calves muscles. Could this be the source of my problem and how would you suggest to approach it?

    Thanks and best Wishes.

    • Hey Boris,

      Big calf muscles in itself won’t cause your duck feet. (it’s more likely as a result of duck feet posture though!)

      If you have tight calves, I would also check if you lack ankle dorsiflexion as this can predispose you to have your feet turned outwards.


      • Hi Mark,
        thanks for your reply. I dont believe I have limited ankle dorsiflexion – it is quite OK actually. It just that my feet are rotated from the knee down. I have been like this for quite some time now, maybe more than 10 years, but started to give it atention in the last 2 weeks unfortunatelly. Do you think it is too late to overcome this disfunction and should I only do popliteous strenghtening exercises and knee push outs or should I also try something else?

        Again, big thanks!

      • Hi Boris,

        If you lower leg bone is rotated outwards, then it sounds like a tibial external rotation issue.

        If it is not structural (bony alignment issue), then it is possible to improve it.

        The exercises mentioned on the blog post will help address the position of your knee.


  46. Hi Mark i like your blog so much it is great and maybe it is because of ı have many postural problems… I have anterior pelvic tilt and at the same time duck feet (hip externally rotated and tibia externally rotated) should ı do glute strechs ? I am afraid of it because of my APT.
    Thanks so much.

  47. Mark,
    I have most of this. Femoral anteversion, anterior pelvic tilt (which I have improved some in the last months), knee valgus, external tibial torsion, and my Arch is high /suppinated. This has stopped me from fitness my whole life and I’m tired of it. Stretches do very little to correct it.
    So I started barbell training – starting strength. It took me weeks just to perform a bodyweight squat. Then goblet squats for months.
    Now I’ve had some success with a Rippetoe style low bar squat. I got 3/4 inch heavy squat shoes – they help me get lower without rolling out those high arches and I’m a very tall, long femured lady. Rippetoe recommends for all a shoulder width stance (more seems impossible due to my hips), pointing the feet out 15 to 30 degrees – ok, natural for duckfooted me. But that part about shove my knees out? That’s difficult for me and he says it’s the key. I squat with a band on my knees and I’m up to about 100 lbs. Below parallel depth is a challenge.
    Should I squat differently? Am I gonna tear an ACL? Am I gonna hurt myself? I’m ready to see a doctor about this for the first time since I was 6 (he said hey surgery or just walk funny) and surgery is off the table – what kind of doctor do I see to get cleared for some really heavy squats?

    • Hey Carolyn,

      Every one is structurally different.

      With these natural differences, it may not be possible for you to have the “100% perfect” squat form… and that’s okay!

      Sure, “push your knees out” is a great cue for squatting, but it might not be comfortable (or even possible) for someone with high arches and femoral anteversion like yourself.

      It sounds like you have made some great gains at the gym already and I would encourage you to keep going with what you’re doing.

      Obviously – you will need to SLOWLY increase the weight without losing your best relative form. This will allow the body to develop the capacity to handle the extra load on your structures..

      With long femurs, low bar squat is the way to go! You will need to likely lean forward a bit more from the hips to maintain your balance however.

      Best of luck to you.


  48. Mark, this is a nice and very detailed article. I’m a cyclist and I think my riding over the last few years (without much stretching, sadly) has caused some issues. Is it possible to have over supination and duck feet? My shoes wear badly on the outside of the heels, and I tend to have duck feet stance. My massage therapist says that my IT bands are very tight, and I have soreness in my hip area which I think is is tightness in my TFLs (I’ve never had it diagnosed but it seems like the right location). I assume all of this is connected…..weakness in either the TFL or gluteus medius causes tightness in the IT, which pulls my feet outward. Seem plausible? Outside of the dreaded foam rolling of the IT band, any suggestions on other stretches or strength exercises I should try?

    • Hi Greg the Duck,

      You can definitely have duck feet even if you have supinated feet.

      If your feet are structurally bound that way, there is not too much we can do to change the positioning of the foot itself.

      Is your rotation coming from the pelvis, hips, knees or ankles? This will give you the best idea as to where to start your exercises.


  49. Hi Mark,

    Love the website – you’ve done a great job on all of your articles and they are very helpful.

    Naturally I seem to have my knees and tibia forward but one foot outward. However, an x-ray showed I had my right hip tilted forwards and my femur rotated inward / tibia outward.

    I can get my legs and feet to face forward but I can’t get the ball of my big toe to touch the floor when I’m doing this.

    I would love to do all of these exercises everyday but it’s just so much – what would you recommend I do?

    Do you have a physio practice in the UK?


    • Hey Nick,

      Thanks for the compliment.
      Do you have forefoot varus?

      If so – the structure of your bones in your feet might be preventing you from getting the ball of the big toe down on the floor when you straighten out your leg.


      • Hey,

        No problem! It resembles that but if I really really try I can force the ball of my foot downwards.

        I saw an osteopath recently who advised me I have limited ROM in my big toe and this could have led to all of this.

        Bit confused as of where to go now, I cycle and run a lot and I’m worried about issues down the line.


      • Hey Nick,

        If you can get the ball of the big toe down without compromising the position of the heel, then you probably don’t have forefoot varus. (this is good news!)

        Big toe tightness into extension can force your foot to turn outwards.

        If this is the main issue causing your duck feet posture, then I would start working on improving big toe extension.


      • Hi Mark,

        I’ve been working on big toe mobility and have seen some improvements over the last month in terms of being able to flex etc. I am still really struggling with my leg though and if anything I feel like it’s worse. I’ve also worked on spinal rotation and have much more rotation in my upper body.

        I have made an observation that after a difficult run / cycle my foot points out a lot more and my knee points even even more, implying that a particular muscle or set of muscles is just too weak to support my leg in a straight position and fatigues quickly.

        I get pain on the right side of my hip/glute almost on the femur itself and lots of tightness / aching underneath the achilles / up the back of the lower leg.

        I’m getting stuck for ideas and it’s really affecting my ability to improve my running. Do you have any other ideas?

        Sorry to pester but I really do appreciate your advice!

      • Hey Nick,

        If your knee AND foot point outwards, I would check your glute muscles (external rotators of the hip) to see if they are tight/over active.

        If you have issues only on the right side after you run/cycle, check to see if your pelvis is level as this could be placing more load on that right side.

        Rotated pelvis
        Lateral pelvic tilt


  50. Hey Mark.

    I am grateful that you have managed to put such a comprehensive post on the issue of Duck Feet together, I think it will prove to be very helpful. However I have at least a couple of questions for you.

    First of, what is the difference between externally rotated tibias as a result of genetics vs muscular imbalance, how do I find out which one I am dealing with? Just so that I know what can be done about it.

    Second, in my case, as I keep my knees straight, the tibias are actually tilted outwards somewhat (wider distance between ankles than knees. As if pressure on the knees makes the tibia cave and go outwards to keep in balance). How do you propose this can be dealt with?

    Thank you so much for the work you’ve put into this.

    • Hi Andreas,

      Your genetics will determine if you are structurally “built” with externally rotated tibias.

      If you are able to change the position of the tibia to more relatively internally rotated position, then you do not have a structural issue. This means you can influence the resting joint position.

      When you say the ankle gap is larger than the knee, do you mean you have a degree knee valgus? If so, this post might help : How to fix knee valgus.


  51. Hi Mark,
    A few months ago, I started doing a lot of squats in an effort to get into shape, which was when I noticed that I had duck feet. I’d never really noticed them before, but then I saw that whenever I did a deep squat, my feet would turn outwards. Even when I tried to keep them straight, that just made my knees point inwards.
    So I Googled it, found your website (this is a really useful site by the way), and deduced that I have flat feet, tibial external rotation, and weak gluteals. I really want to fix these problems, but at the same time I’m worried about losing my progress with my squats.
    So here’s my question: should I give up my poor-posture squats until I fix my leg problems, or just start doing your recommended stretches / exercises at the same time as squats?
    Thanks a lot for your help.

    • Hey Danny,

      You can continue to do your squats, but just be mindful that it could potentially lead to injury further down the line.

      But I would definitely start to address your technique and posture if you want to stop your knees from caving in.

      Also check out this post:

      How to improve ankle Dorsiflexion.


    • Hey Kareem,

      If the clicking is coming from the front of your knee, it is likely due to the misaligned position of your patella.

      Think of your patella as a train. The train needs to sit directly on top of the train tracks.

      Any deviation from this line of tracking will increase the chance of the patella rubbing against the bone behind it.


    • Hi there,

      The popliteus is a tibia internal rotator and a knee flexor.

      Any exercise that encourage any of these movements will engage the muscle.

      As you push OUT your knees, make sure the feet do not roll out. This will hit the popliteus as well as the glutes.


  52. Hey brother,let me first thank you for your articles out of all the BS on internet,you provide some genuine info my man,now i’ll come to the question,when i try out knee pushout ,my pelvis tilts forward,is this tight TFL? Also i have a small degree of knocked knees,when i tilt my pelvis i can create gap between my knees,please tell me whats the main issue here

  53. Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge.

    I’ve had duck feet since I was a child.

    When I jog I get bad pain down the outside of my lower legs. It doesn’t happen for my first or second jogs but when I do more it starts – by the 6th or 7th jog it’s excruciating and I have to stop.

    The pain goes away as soon as I stop moving. But the site is tender when pressure is applied.

    Is there a correlation? Is there anything I can do?

    • Hey Cathy,

      Sounds like it may be due to over activity of your tibialis anterior or possibly extensor digitorum muscle.

      These muscles tend to be over active in people with duck feet posture.

      You can start with a good stretch to help them settle down in between runs:


  54. Hello Mark ! Your article is indeed very helpful however I am bit confused about what kind of problem I am actually having . My knees are straight but my feet are pointed outwards also I have flat feet . Cause of it I am not able to sit on my knees or run normally . Plz help me to know which type I am going through

    • Hi Radnyee,

      If your knees are forwards but your tibia (lower leg bone) is pointing outwards (… with the ankles/feet following this direction), this would mean you have a degree of Tibial torsion.

      In this case, you will need to improve your internal rotation of the tibia on the femur with the medial hamstring and Popliteus muscle.

      If your knees AND tibia are forwards BUT your feet are pointing outwards, I would say you either have very poor Ankle Dorsiflexion (see this post), and/or weak arch muscles (see this post).

      Hope this makes some sense.


  55. Hi I’m a collegiate sprinter and i have this issue. Ive been told if i fix this I’d be able to use certian muscle groups more effectively and in turn run faster and also suffer from less leg pain. I cant really tell if i have tibia external rotation or hip external rotation. My knees seem slighly turned but i can’t really tell for sure and my tibia seems slightly off but again i cant tell for sure. Also how long will strengthening the proper muscles to fix duck feet roughly take?

    • Hi Guy,

      If your knees and feet are pointing outwards, it is more likely the hips are externally rotated.

      In this case – You will need to focus on stretching out those muscles that externally rotate the hip, and then strengthening the hip internal rotators.


  56. Hello Mark,

    This article is really an eye-opener. I’ve seen a lot of people with duck-feet. I am amazed to know that there are ways how to correct it.

  57. Hey Mark

    Can u have duck feet with an anterior pelvic tilt rather then a posterior tilt?
    Everything I’ve read would assume you are more likely to have duck feet with a posterior tilt
    Thanks a heap


  58. Hello Mark
    I am new here, but I read a few of the articles and my I really liked your blog.
    I have a question. Please try and answer it, I will be really grateful!
    I am a 16.5 year old guy. My height is stuck at about 5′ 4″ for 2 years now.
    It might be because of my very poor posture. Due to inactivity and sitting, my posture has got really bad.
    I have:
    #Anterior Pelvic Tilt
    #Hunchback posture
    #Rounded shoulders
    #When I straighten my legs, the front
    part(under knee) is tilted slightly. (Like
    when i straighten left leg, the part under
    knees is slightly left, and above knees is
    towards middle of my body. Same with
    other leg)(what is it called?)

    So the questions I want to ask are-
    1. Can I really increase my height if I correct my posture?
    2. Which posture exercise should I first target if I wish to increase my height as soon as possible(the height due to posture)? I mean, hunched back has different exercises than APT, so which one should I target first for height?
    I know you might be busy, but please reply!
    Thank you.

    • Hi Ami,

      Addressing your posture may help you increase your height to a degree.

      Perhaps start with the hunch back posture and see how you go from there.

      If you have time on your side, you can do your APT at the same time.


  59. Hi Mark,
    as I read through your post, it seems that my problem is actually the externally rottated tibia/fibula. Apart form the popliteus, is there a good way to isolate and strenghten only the medial hamstrings? Can you suggest a good approach.
    Thank you for the great articles, you have helped a ton!
    Keep up the great work.

    • Hey Vasil,

      It is very difficult to isolate a single muscle with any exercise, but if you want to emphasise the medial hamstrings to internal rotate the tibia relative to the femur, you can still use the strengthening exercise for the popliteus muscle exercise.


      • Hi Mark,

        Is there anything else I could do in order to improve my situation here. I have been doing both biceps femoris static releasea and stretches, the popliteus exercise, the knee push out plus a ton of other hip external rotation exercises almost daily for the whole summer , plus I do squats , deadlifts, Bulgaria split squats, you name it , and unfortunately I don’t see any improvements. My legs knee down are still rotated outwards in a relaxed position.

        Any additional guidelines would be much appreciated.
        Thanks again for the great info.

        Best regards,

      • Hey Vasil,

        Do you have a structural tibial torsion? (knees forward but tibia outward facing)

        If so – you may not see any significant improvements with increasing the control of those muscles you mentioned.


      • Well, I think the whole tibia/fibula is somehow missaligned relative to the femur. I think it is exactly how you described it in post.

      • Hi Vasil,

        Structural tibial torsion is due to the shape of your bones/joints.

        If this is the case , there may be some limitations on the extent of changing it.


      • Hi Mark,

        I am pretty sure now, that I don’t have structural tibial torsion. It is my tibia rotated at the knee joint, but once I got a better understanding of the structure of the lower leg an muscle I started to realize, that I do have quite big calves and that my lateral ones is almost always tight. Can this be the cause of the problem and is there a way to Target the lateral calf with a stretch and train the medial calf with some exercise.

        Thanks again!

  60. Can you please make a post about hyperextension there is not much about it on internet, also i have only my tibia pushed away like a bow leg but not the femur.

  61. Hi Mark! I have a question about the exercise.

    c) Knee push outs
    Stand up with your feet facing forwards.
    Whilst keeping your knees slightly bent, push your knees outwards.
    Do NOT lift any part of your foot off the floor.
    Aim to feel your foot arch and glute muscles activate.
    Hold for 30 seconds.
    Repeat 5 times.
    You can place a resistance band between your knees to make the exercise harder.

    Could you send a photo of this exercise, as it is not very clear how to do it.
    Thanks so much!

    • Hi Matteo,

      Sounds like you have Anterior pelvic tilt with tight External rotation fibres of your glutes.

      This can cause a restriction in your hip Internal rotation and cause the out turning of your foot.


  62. When I walk I notice that my right foot is swerving to the right.
    I have a left pelvic rotation.
    Do pelvic exercises are sufficient to repair the shaper.

    • Hi there,

      If you have a left pelvic rotation with a right leg that sticks out, chances are that your hip external rotators may be very tight.

      Stretch them out and see how that goes.


  63. Hello mark,i cannot feel any pain when rolling biceps femoris, can my tibial torsion be caused by the tfl?
    I also have knocked knees. But when i try and rotate tibia in it goes away (but i cannot hold this godly perfect position). PLS REPLY AND HELP A POSTURELET OUT!

  64. If only one foot is pointing outward does that mean that side of the pelvis is rotated forward or that the opposite side is rotated forward?
    Thanks in advance!

    • Hi Mark,

      Thank you so much for making these wonderful, detailed articles. You’re truly great at what you do!

      I was wondering if you could offer me some advice. Unfortunately, I’m pretty certain my pelvis is shifted in every plane it could be. More specifically, my hip is hitched up on the right side, I have a Left Pelvis Rotation, and a Posterior Pelvic tilt. My left shoulder/trap is higher then my right (probably due to the hip hitch) and I tend to have duck feet.

      I think this may all stem from and injury to my left knee/quad many years ago I incurred when squatting incorrectly. My left VMO is undeveloped because my body/brain does not seem to want to put that much weight on it or maybe I just cant really use my left leg correctly.

      Anyway I know I’m a mess lol, but I was wondering if you had any general advice. Do you think there is any particular place I should really spend my time focusing on strengthening or stretching? I’m thinking I may have overlap because my body is so twisted up that I may get more bang for my buck so to speak by focusing more effort on one particular area.

      Thank you.

      • Hey Broken man,

        Sounds like you have trained yourself into your current posture following your injury.

        If you feel the left knee is the area that is driving all of your other compensations, I would start single leg loading patterns on that left side. (eg. lunges, single leg squat, step ups etc)

        This will your body get used to placing equal weights through your legs, and thus help with the postural compensations throughout.


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